Moving an Ubuntu Server installation to a new partition scheme

My previous post covered how to clone an Ubuntu Server installation to a new drive. That method covered cloning between identical drives and identical partition schemes. However, I have grown out of space on one of the file servers which have the following layout:

The issue now is that if increase the size of the drive, I can not grow the filesystem since the swap is at the end of the disk. Fine, I figured I could remove the swap, grow the sda1 partition and then add the swap at the end again. I booted up the VM to a Live CD, launched GParted and tried the operation. This failed with the following output:

After some searching and new attempts with a stand alone Gparted Live CD I still got the same results. Therefor, I figured I could try to copy the installation to a completely new partition layout.

Process

Setup the new filesystem

Add the new (destination) drive and the old (source) drive to the VM and boot it to a Live CD, preferable with the same version as the source OS. Setup the new drive as you like it to be. Here is the layout of my new (sda) and old drive (sdb):

Copy the installation to the new partition

For this I use the following rsync command:

Time to wait…

Fix fstab on the new drive

Identify the UUIDs of the partition:

Remember, we changed the partition layout so make sure you pick the right ones. In this example, sda1 is swap and sda2 is the ext4 filesystem.
Change the UUID in fstab:

Look for the following lines and change the old UUIDs to the new ones. Once again, the comments in the file is from initial installation, do not get confused of them.

Save (CTRL+O) and exit (CTRL+X) nano.

Setup GRUB on the new drive

This is the same process as in the previous post, only the mount points are slightly different this time:

With the help of chroot, the grub tools will operate on the virtual drive rather than the live session. Run the following commands to re-/install the boot loader again.

Lets exit the chroot and unmount the directories:

Cleanup and finalizing

Everything should be done now to boot into the OS with the new drive. Shutdown the VM, remove the old virtual drive from the VM and remove the virtual Live CD. Fire up the VM in a console and verify that it is booting correctly.

As a friendly reminder – now that the VM has been removed and re-added to the inventory it is removed from the list of automatically started virtual machines. If you use it, head over to the host configuration – Software – Virtual Machine

Cloning a virtual hard disk to a new ESXi datastore

One physical drive of my ESXi host is starting to act strange and after a couple of years I think it is a good idea to start migrating to a new drive. Unfortunately, I do not do this often enough to remember the process. Therefor, I intend to document it here and it could hopefully be of help to someone else.

Precondition

  • ESXi 5.1
  • Ubuntu Server 12.04 virtual machine on “Datastore A”
  • VM hard disk is thin provisioned

Goal

  • Move the VM to “Datastore B”
  • Reduce the used space of the VM on the new datastore

The VM was set up with a 1TB thin provisioned drive and the initial usage was up to 400GB. Later on I moved the majority of the used storage to a separate VM and the usage now is around 35GB. However, the previously used storage is not freed up and I intend to accomplish this by cloning the VM to a new virtual disk. As far as I know, there are other methods to free up space but I have not tried any of those yet. To be investigated…

Process

  1. Add new thin virtual hard disk to the VM of the same size on the new datastore
  2. Boot the VM to a cloning tool (I have used Acronis, but there are other free competent alternatives)
  3. Clone the old drive to the new one keeping the same partition setup
  4. Shut down the VM and copy the .vmx-file to the same folder as the .vmdk on the new datastore (created in step 1)
  5. Remove the VM from the inventory. Do not delete the files from the datastore
  6. Browse the new datastore, right click on the copied .vmx-file and select Add to inventory
  7. Edit the settings of the VM to remove the old virtual drive.
  8. Select a Ubuntu Live CD image (preferable the same version as the VM) for the virtual CD drive.
  9. Start the VM. vSphere will pop up a dialogue asking if the VM was moved or copied, select moved.
  10. Boot the VM to a Ubuntu Live CD to fix the mounting and grub
  11. Boot into the new VM

Let’s explain some steps in greater detail.

4. Copy the VMX file

If this is the initial state:

After adding a second drive, VM_B.vmdk, on the other datastore (step 1), cloning VM.vmdk to VM_B.vmdk (step 3) and copying the VM.vmx to the VM-folder on datastoreB (step 4), the layout would be the following:

10. Boot the VM to a Ubuntu Live CD to fix mounts and grub

This section is heavily dependent on the guest OS. Ubuntu 12.04 uses UUID’s to mount drives and to decide which drive to boot from. The new virtual drive will have a different UUID than the original drive and will therefor not be able to boot the OS. This is where the Live CD comes in.

Once inside the Live CD, launch a terminal and orientate yourself. To identify the UUIDs of the partition use:

Next, let’s mount the drive:

where X is the drive letter and Y is the root partition.(If you have some exclusive partitioning setup you might need to mount the other partitions to be able to follow these steps. But then again, you probably know what you are doing anyway)

Change the UUID in fstab:
$ sudo nano /mnt/etc/fstab
Look for the following lines and change the old UUIDs to the new ones.

Next up is changing the grub device mapping. The following steps have I borrowed from HowToUbuntu.org (How to repair, restore of reinstall Grub).

With the help of chroot, the grub tools will operate on the virtual drive rather than the live OS. Run the following commands to re-/install the boot loader again.

Lets exit the chroot and unmount the directories:

Now we should be all set. Shut down the VM, remove the virtual Live CD and boot up the new VM.